Using Single-Cell Amperometry and Intracellular Vesicle Impact Electrochemical Cytometry to Shed Light on the Biphasic Effects of Lidocaine on Exocytosis
Journal article, 2018
Single cell amperometry and intracellular vesicle impact electrochemical cytometry were used to examine whether lidocaine can regulate neurotransmitter release or storage for PC12 cells to explain the biphasic effects whereby it can protect neurons and improve cognitive outcome at low concentration, but can cause neurotoxicity at high concentration. We show that lidocaine affects the behavior of PC12 cell exocytosis in a concentration dependent way, which exactly corresponds to its biphasic effects. At a relatively high concentration, it shows a much narrower pore size and a longer-duration fusion pore with less monoamine released than control cells. However, at a relatively low concentration, the fusion pore is open even longer than at high concentration, and with more monoamine released than control cells. Furthermore, intracellular vesicle impact electrochemical cytometry was used to confirm that lidocaine did not change the catecholamine content of the vesicles. These data provide a mechanism for the observed biphasic effects of the drug and suggest that lidocaine influences exocytosis through multiple mechanisms.