Three-Dimensional Printed Biopatches With Conductive Ink Facilitate Cardiac Conduction When Applied to Disrupted Myocardium
Journal article, 2019

BACKGROUND: Reentrant ventricular arrhythmias are a major cause of sudden death in patients with structural heart disease. Current treatments focus on electrically homogenizing regions of scar contributing to ventricular arrhythmia with ablation or altering conductive properties using antiarrhythmic drugs. The high conductivity of carbon nanotubes may allow restoration of conduction in regions where impaired electrical conduction results in functional abnormalities. We propose a new concept for arrhythmia treatment using a stretchable, flexible biopatch with conductive properties to attempt to restore conduction across regions in which activation is disrupted.

METHODS: Carbon nanotube patches composed of nanofibrillated cellulose/single-walled carbon nanotube ink 3-dimensionally printed in conductive patterns onto bacterial nanocellulose were developed and evaluated for conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical properties. The patches were applied on 6 canines to epicardium before and after surgical disruption. Electroanatomic mapping was performed on normal epicardium, then repeated over surgically disrupted epicardium, and then finally with the patch applied passively.

RESULTS: We developed a 3-dimensional printable carbon nanotube ink complexed on bacterial nanocellulose that was (1) expressable through 3-dimensional printer nozzles, (2) electrically conductive, (3) flexible, and (4) stretchable. Six canines underwent thoracotomy, and, during epicardial ventricular pacing, mapping was performed. We demonstrated disruption of conduction after surgical incision in all 6 canines based on activation mapping. The patch resulted in restored conduction based on mapping and assessment of conduction direction and velocities in all canines.

CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated 3-dimensional custom-printed electrically conductive carbon nanotube patches can be surgically manipulated to improve cardiac conduction when passively applied to surgically disrupted epicardial myocardium in canines.




nanotubes, carbon


Dawn M. Pedrotty

University of Pennsylvania

Mayo Clinic

Volodymyr Kuzmenko

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Electronics Material and Systems

Wallenberg Wood Science Center (WWSC)

Erdem Karabulut

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry

Wallenberg Wood Science Center (WWSC)

Alan M. Sugrue

Mayo Clinic

Christopher Livia

Mayo Clinic

Vaibhav R. Vaidya

Mayo Clinic

Christopher J. McLeod

Mayo Clinic

Samuel J. Asirvatham

Mayo Clinic

Paul Gatenholm

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry

Wallenberg Wood Science Center (WWSC)

Suraj Kapa

Mayo Clinic

Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology

1941-3149 (ISSN) 1941-3084 (eISSN)

Vol. 12 3 e006920

Subject Categories

Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials

Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology

Composite Science and Engineering





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