XRMA analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis of dental enamel from human permanent teeth exposed to hydrogen peroxide of varying pH
Journal article, 2019

Background: This in vitro investigation shows how 3.3% H2O2, at different pH-values affects the enamel.

Material and Methods: A number of fifteen human premolars were used. The enamel of the coronal half in six of the teeth, were exposed by H2O2. Nine teeth were prepared to enamel powder. The enamel was exposed to 3.3% H2O2, at six different pH-values (pH range 4.5 - 7.0). Analyses of the topography of enamel performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the chemical composition of enamel by X-ray microanalysis (XRMA). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysed the crystallinity in enamel powder.

Results: The exposure to H2O2 at pH < 5.5 resulted in a rougher topography of the enamel, according to the SEM studies. The XRMA analysis revealed a increase in the ratio of Ca:C. Exposure to H2O2 at pH > 5.5 resulted in a decrease of O in the exposed enamel, and changes in C:P, Ca:C, Ca:P and Ca:O were observed. The H2O22 did not affect the unit cell parameters, but the signal-to-noise level was increased for slightly acidic or neutral solutions. The unit cell parameters decreased in the acidic solutions.

Conclusions: The exposure to H2O2 at varying pH values affect the enamel with two different mechanisms. One effect is the oxidation of the organic or bioorganic matter in the hydroxyapatite matrix, due to the use of 3.3% H2O2. The other effect is due to the current pH of the H2O2, since the structure of the hydroxyapatite starts to erode when the pH < 5.5.

Dental enamel

Hydrogen peroxide

Scanning electron microscopy

Tooth bleaching agents

X-ray diffraction


Nina Sabel

University of Gothenburg

Andreas Karlsson

Karolinska Institutet

Lennart Sjölin

University of Gothenburg, Department of Chemistry

Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry

1989-5488 (ISSN)

Vol. 11 6 e512-e520

Subject Categories

Inorganic Chemistry

Materials Chemistry

Other Chemistry Topics



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