Multivalent Batteries-Prospects for High Energy Density: Ca Batteries
Journal article, 2019

Batteries based on Ca hold the promise to leapfrog ahead regarding increases in energy densities and are especially attractive as Ca is the 5th most abundant element in the Earth's crust. The viability of Ca metal anodes has recently been shown by approaches that either use wide potential window electrolytes at moderately elevated temperatures or THE-based electrolytes at room temperature. This paper provides realistic estimates of the practical energy densities for Ca-based rechargeable batteries at the cell level, calculated using open source models for several concepts. The results from the Ca metal anode batteries indicate that doubled or even tripled energy density as compared to the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries is viable if a practical proof-of-concept can be achieved.


calcium batteries


metal anodes

energy-cost model


Damien Monti

Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Alexandre Ponrouch

Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Rafael Barros Neves de Araújo

Chalmers, Physics, Materials Physics

Fanny Barde

Toyota Motor Europe

Patrik Johansson

Chalmers, Physics, Materials Physics

M. Rosa Palacin

Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)

Frontiers in Chemistry

2296-2646 (ISSN)

Vol. 7 79

Subject Categories

Other Chemical Engineering

Theoretical Chemistry

Energy Systems



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