The ALMA-PILS survey: the sulphur connection between protostars and comets:
Journal article, 2018
The evolutionary past of our Solar system can be pieced together by comparing analogous lowmass protostars with remnants of our Protosolar Nebula - comets. Sulphur-bearing molecules may be unique tracers of the joint evolution of the volatile and refractory components. ALMA Band 7 data from the large unbiased Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey are used to search for S-bearing molecules in the outer disc-like structure, ~60 au from IRAS 16293-2422 B, and are compared with data on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) stemming from the ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) instrument aboard Rosetta. Species such as SO 2 , SO, OCS, CS, H 2 CS, H 2 S, and CH 3 SH are detected via at least one of their isotopologues towards IRAS 16293-2422 B. The search reveals a first-time detection of OC 33 S towards this source and a tentative first-time detection of C 36 S towards a low-mass protostar. The data show that IRAS 16293-2422 B contains much more OCS than H 2 S in comparison to 67P/C-G; meanwhile, the SO/SO 2 ratio is in close agreement between the two targets. IRAS 16293-2422 B has a CH 3 SH/H 2 CS ratio in range of that of our Solar system (differences by a factor of 0.7-5.3). It is suggested that the levels of UV radiation during the initial collapse of the systems may have varied and have potentially been higher for IRAS 16293-2422 B due to its binary nature; thereby, converting more H 2 S into OCS. It remains to be conclusively tested if this also promotes the formation of S-bearing complex organics. Elevated UV levels of IRAS 16293-2422 B and a warmer birth cloud of our Solar system may jointly explain the variations between the two low-mass systems.