A transition of atmospheric emissions of particles and gases from on-road heavy-duty trucks
Journal article, 2020

The transition, in extent and characteristics, of atmospheric emissions caused by the modernization of the heavy-duty on-road fleet was studied utilizing roadside measurements. Emissions of particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), particle size distributions, and particle volatility were measured from 556 individual heavy-duty trucks (HDTs). Substantial reductions in PM, BC, NOx, CO, and to a lesser extent PN were observed from Euro III to Euro VI HDTs by 99 %, 98 %, 93 %, and 57 % for the average emission factors of PM, BC, NOx, and CO, respectively. Despite significant total reductions in NOx emissions, the fraction of NO2 in the NOx emissions increased continuously from Euro IV to Euro VI HDTs. Larger data scattering was evident for PN emissions in comparison to solid particle number (SPN) for Euro VI HDTs, indicating a highly variable fraction of volatile particle components. Particle size distributions of Euro III to enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle (EEV) HDTs were bimodal, whereas those of Euro VI HDTs were nucleation mode dominated. High emitters disproportionately contributed to a large fraction of the total emissions with the highest-emitting 10 % of HDTs in each pollutant category being responsible for 65 % of total PM, 70 % of total PN, and 44 % of total NOx emissions. Euro VI HDTs, which accounted for 53 % of total kilometres driven by Swedish HDTs, were estimated to only contribute to 2 %, 6 %, 12 %, and 47 % of PM, BC, NOx, and PN emissions, respectively. A shift to a fleet dominated by Euro VI HDTs would promote a transition of atmospheric emissions towards low PM, BC, NOx, and CO levels. Nonetheless, reducing PN, SPN, and NO2 emissions from Euro VI HDTs is still important to improve air quality in urban environments.


Liyuan Zhou

City University of Hong Kong

Qianyun Liu

City University of Hong Kong

Berto P. Lee

City University of Hong Kong

Chak K. Chan

City University of Hong Kong

Åsa M. Hallquist

IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Åke Sjödin

IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Martin Jerksjö

IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Håkan Salberg

IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

I. Wangberg

IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Mattias Hallquist

University of Gothenburg

Christian Mark Salvador

University of Gothenburg

Samuel Mwaniki Gaita

University of Gothenburg

Johan Mellqvist

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

1680-7316 (ISSN) 1680-7324 (eISSN)

Vol. 20 3 1701-1722

Subject Categories

Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences

Physical Geography

Environmental Sciences



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