Effect of liraglutide on anthropometric measurements, sagittal abdominal diameter and adiponectin levels in people with type 2 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections: evaluations from a randomized trial (MDI-liraglutide study 5)
Journal article, 2019
Aim Use of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide has been shown to reduce weight. Different types of anthropometric measurements can be used to measure adiposity. This study evaluated the effect of liraglutide on sagittal abdominal diameter, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and adiponectin levels in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). Materials and methods In the multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled MDI-liraglutide trial, 124 individuals with T2D treated with MDI were randomized to either liraglutide or placebo. Basal values of weight, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, sagittal abdominal diameter and adiponectin were compared with measurements at 12 and 24 weeks after randomization. Results Baseline-adjusted mean weight loss was 3.8 +/- 2.9 kg greater in liraglutide than placebo-treated individuals (p < 0.0001). Waist circumference was reduced by 2.9 +/- 4.3 cm and 0.2 +/- 3.6 cm in the liraglutide and placebo groups, respectively, after 24 weeks (baseline-adjusted mean difference: 2.6 +/- 4.0 cm, p = 0.0005). Corresponding reductions in sagittal abdominal diameter were 1.1 +/- 1.7 cm and 0.0 +/- 1.8 cm (baseline-adjusted mean difference: 1.1 +/- 1.7 cm, p = 0.0008). Hip circumference was reduced in patients randomized to liraglutide (baseline-adjusted mean difference between treatment groups: 2.8 +/- 3.8 cm, p = 0.0001), but there was no significant difference between the groups in either waist-to-hip ratio (baseline-adjusted mean difference: 0.0 +/- 0.04 cm, p = 0.51) or adiponectin levels (baseline-adjusted mean difference: 0.8 +/- 3.3 mg L-1, p = 0.17). Lower HbA1c and mean glucose levels measured by masked continuous glucose monitoring at baseline were associated with greater effects of liraglutide on reductions in waist circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter. Conclusions In patients with T2D, adding liraglutide to MDI may reduce abdominal and hip obesity to a similar extent, suggesting an effect on both visceral and subcutaneous fat. Liraglutide had greater effects on reducing abdominal obesity in patients with less pronounced long-term hyperglycaemia but did not affect adiponectin levels.