Designing for a wearable affective interface for the NAO robot: A study of emotion conveyance by touch
Journal article, 2018

We here present results and analysis from a study of affective tactile communication between human and humanoid robot (the NAO robot). In the present work, participants conveyed eight emotions to the NAO via touch. In this study, we sought to understand the potential for using a wearable affective (tactile) interface, or WAffI. The aims of our study were to address the following: (i) how emotions and affective states can be conveyed (encoded) to such a humanoid robot, (ii) what are the effects of dressing the NAO in the WAffI on emotion conveyance and (iii) what is the potential for decoding emotion and affective states. We found that subjects conveyed touch for longer duration and over more locations on the robot when the NAO was dressed with WAffI than when it was not. Our analysis illuminates ways by which affective valence, and separate emotions, might be decoded by a humanoid robot according to the different features of touch: intensity, duration, location, type. Finally, we discuss the types of sensors and their distribution as they may be embedded within the WAffI and that would likely benefit Human-NAO (and Human-Humanoid) interaction along the affective tactile dimension.


Emotion classification

Human-robot interaction

Affective tactile interaction



Robert Lowe

University of Gothenburg

Rebecca Andreasson

Uppsala University

Beatrice Alenljung

University of Skövde

Anja Lund

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry

University of Borås

Erik Billing

University of Skövde

Multimodal Technologies and Interaction

24144088 (eISSN)

Vol. 2 1 2

Subject Categories

Interaction Technologies

Human Computer Interaction




More information

Latest update