A high consumption of tomato and lycopene is associated with a lower risk of cancer mortality: results from a multi-ethnic cohort
Journal article, 2020
Objective: We investigated the association between the consumption of tomato and lycopene and cancer mortality among US adults. Design: Prospective. Setting: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2010). Participants: Participants with estimated dietary data on tomato and lycopene consumption were included. Outcome data up until 31 December 2011 were also ascertained. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to relate baseline tomato and lycopene consumption with cancer mortality. We conducted a competing-risk survival analysis to account for deaths from other causes. Results: Adjusted Cox models showed that tomato and lycopene intake were inversely related (hazard ratio (95 % CI)) to cancer mortality: 0 center dot 86 (0 center dot 81, 0 center dot 92) and 0 center dot 79 (0 center dot 74, 0 center dot 82), respectively. In the adjusted competing-risk models, the sub-hazard ratios (95 % CI) were 0 center dot 89 (0 center dot 83, 0 center dot 94) and 0 center dot 82 (0 center dot 78, 0 center dot 86) for cancer mortality for tomato and lycopene intake, respectively. No significant interaction was found for the association between tomato and lycopene consumption and cancer mortality while comparing older (aged >50 years) v. younger adults (P-interaction > 0 center dot 173 for all) and obese v. non-obese (P-interaction > 0 center dot 352 for all). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the potential beneficial effects of a high dietary intake of tomato and lycopene on cancer death. Further prospective studies are needed to explore the association.