Hydrothermal Aging of Pd/LTA Monolithic Catalyst for Complete CH4 Oxidation
Journal article, 2020
Palladium-based catalysts are known to provide high CH4 oxidation activity. One drawback for these materials is that they often lose activity in the presence of water vapor due to the formation of surface hydroxyls. It is however possible to improve the water vapor tolerance by using zeolites as support material. In this study, we have investigated Pd supported on thermally stable LTA zeolite with high framework Si/Al ratio (Si/Al = ~44) for CH4 oxidation and the effect of hydrothermal aging at temperatures up to 900◦C. High and stable CH4 oxidation activity in the presence of water vapor was observed for Pd/LTA after hydrothermal aging at temperatures ≤ 700◦C. However, aging at temperatures of 800–900◦C resulted in catalyst deactivation. This deactivation was not a result of structural collapse of the LTA zeolite as the LTA zeolite only showed minor changes in surface area, pore volume, and X-ray diffraction pattern after 900◦C aging. We suggest that the deactivation was caused by extensive formation of ion-exchanged Pd2+ together with Pd sintering. These two types of Pd species appear to have lower CH4 oxidation activity and to be more sensitive to water deactivation compared to the well dispersed Pd particles observed on the LTA support prior to the hydrothermal aging. By contrast, Pd/Al2O3 was generally sensitive to water vapor no matter of the aging temperature. Although the aging caused extensive Pd sintering in Pd/Al2O3, only minor deterioration of the CH4 oxidation activity was seen. The results herein presented show that Pd/LTA is a promising CH4 oxidation catalyst, however Pd rearrangement at high temperatures (≥800◦C) is one remaining challenge.