Melatonin and vitamin E alleviate homocysteine‐induced oxidative injury and apoptosis in endothelial cells
Journal article, 2020
A relationship exists between hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular diseases, although the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely defined. One possibility involves a homocysteine (Hcy)-induced increased oxidative stress. Melatonin (Mel) and vitamin E (vitE) are important anti-oxidants. The main purpose of this study was (1) to compare the effect of treatments with Mel, vitE or both, on Hcy-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and (2) to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Cell proliferation assay was carried out by Water Soluble Tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay kit. Apoptotic index was calculated by TUNEL Assay. Anti-oxidant parameters were studied by measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels. mRNA and protein expression levels of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins were studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting experiments respectively. The results showed that treatments with Mel, vitE or Mel + vitE suppressed Hcy-induced cell death, with a higher efficiency for the Mel and Mel + vitE treatments. Our results suggests that the mechanisms by which these anti-oxidants protected endothelial cells include the decrease in ROS and LPO levels, an increase in cell migration, the downregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins Cas 3, Cas 9, Cyt C and Bax and the upregulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl 2. Collectively, these results revealed the protective role of vitE and Mel against Hcy-induced cell apoptosis, which may add insight into therapeutic approaches to Hcy-induced damages.