From technical and non-technical skills to hybrid minds: Reconceptualizing cognition and learning in semi-automated environments
Paper in proceedings, 2020

The aim of this study is to review and compare theories and methods for studying cognition and learning in simulator-based maritime training, preparing students for work in socio-technical systems on ships that are rapidly becoming increasingly autonomous. A comparison of studies that draw on classic cognitivist theories with situated and socio-cultural theories on cognition and learning is conducted. The findings reveal tensions between different research ontologies, pointing towards the need to re-consider the dualistic view on human relations with technology underlying the technical and non-technical skills taxonomy. Instead, the notion of a hybrid mind is introduced to maritime human factors. A hybrid mind is both relying on and is shaped by its embeddedness in increasingly complex and powerful cognitive habits and technical systems. Hence, the concept serves as a compelling tool to explain how increased levels of automation continuously change both cognitive practices and capacities of humans at work.

Maritime human factors

Theoretical approaches

Simulator training

Research methods

Cognition and learning


Charlott Sellberg

University of Gothenburg

Martin Viktorelius

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Studies, Maritime Human Factors

Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing

21945357 (ISSN)

Vol. 1211 AISC 191-197
978-303050895-1 (ISBN)

AHFE Virtual Conference on Human Factors in Training, Education, and Learning Sciences, 2020
San Diego, USA,

Assessment of professional performance: Maritime technologies, knowledge and educational practices in transformation

Forte, 2019-01-01 -- 2020-12-31.

Subject Categories


Interaction Technologies

Information Systemes, Social aspects



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