Lithium-ion batteries – Current state of the art and anticipated developments
Journal article, 2020

Lithium-ion batteries are the state-of-the-art electrochemical energy storage technology for mobile electronic devices and electric vehicles. Accordingly, they have attracted a continuously increasing interest in academia and industry, which has led to a steady improvement in energy and power density, while the costs have decreased at even faster pace. Important questions, though, are, to which extent and how (fast) the performance can be further improved, and how the envisioned goal of truly sustainable energy storage can be realized. Herein, we combine a comprehensive review of important findings and developments in this field that have enabled their tremendous success with an overview of very recent trends concerning the active materials for the negative and positive electrode as well as the electrolyte. Moreover, we critically discuss current and anticipated electrode fabrication processes, as well as an essential prerequisite for “greener” batteries – the recycling. In each of these chapters, we eventually summarize important remaining challenges and propose potential directions for further improvement. Finally, we conclude this article with a brief summary of the performance metrics of commercial lithium-ion cells and a few thoughts towards the future development of this technology including several key performance indicators for the mid-term to long-term future.






Lithium-ion battery


Michel Armand

Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA)

Peter Axmann

Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wurttembergstiftung (ZSW)

Dominic Bresser

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)


Mark Copley

The University of Warwick

K. Edstrom

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)

Uppsala University

Christian Ekberg

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Energy and Material

Dominique Guyomard

Nantes University

Bernard Lestriez

Nantes University

Petr Novák

Paul Scherrer Institut

Martina Petranikova

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Energy and Material

Willy Porcher

Grenoble Alpes University

Sigita Trabesinger

Paul Scherrer Institut

Margret Wohlfahrt-Mehrens

Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wurttembergstiftung (ZSW)


Heng Zhang

Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA)

Journal of Power Sources

0378-7753 (ISSN)

Vol. 479 228708

Subject Categories

Chemical Engineering

Energy Systems



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