The XXL Survey: XLIV. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich mapping of a low-mass cluster at z ∼1: A multi-wavelength approach
Journal article, 2020

High-mass clusters at low redshifts have been intensively studied at various wavelengths. However, while more distant objects at lower masses constitute the bulk population of future surveys, their physical state remain poorly explored to date. In this paper, we present resolved observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, obtained with the NIKA2 camera, towards the cluster of galaxies XLSSC 102, a relatively low-mass system (M500 ∼ 2 × 1014 M·) at z = 0.97 detected from the XXL survey. We combine NIKA2 SZ data, XMM-Newton X-ray data, and Megacam optical data to explore, respectively, the spatial distribution of the gas electron pressure, the gas density, and the galaxies themselves. We find significant offsets between the X-ray peak, the SZ peak, the brightest cluster galaxy, and the peak of galaxy density. Additionally, the galaxy distribution and the gas present elongated morphologies. This is interpreted as the sign of a recent major merging event, which induced a local boost of the gas pressure towards the north of XLSSC 102 and stripped the gas out of the galaxy group. The NIKA2 data are also combined with XXL data to construct the thermodynamic profiles of XLSSC 102, obtaining relatively tight constraints up to about ∼r500, and revealing properties that are typical of disturbed systems. We also explore the impact of the cluster centre definition and the implication of local pressure substructure on the recovered profiles. Finally, we derive the global properties of XLSSC 102 and compare them to those of high-mass-and-low-redshift systems, finding no strong evidence for non-standard evolution. We also use scaling relations to obtain alternative mass estimates from our profiles. The variation between these different mass estimates reflects the difficulty to accurately measure the mass of low-mass clusters at z ∼ 1, especially with low signal-to-noise ratio data and for a disturbed system. However, it also highlights the strength of resolved SZ observations alone and in combination with survey-like X-ray data. This is promising for the study of high redshift clusters from the combination of eROSITA and high resolution SZ instruments and will complement the new generation of optical surveys from facilities such as LSST and Euclid.

X-rays: galaxies: clusters

Galaxies: clusters: individual: XLSSC 102

Techniques: high angular resolution

Galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium

Author

M. Ricci

Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur

Universite Savoie Mont Blanc

R. M. Adam

Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón

École polytechnique

D. Eckert

University of Geneva

P., Ade

Cardiff University

P. André

University Paris-Saclay

A. Andrianasolo

Grenoble Alpes University

B. Altiéri

European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)

H. Aussel

University Paris-Saclay

A. Beelen

Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale

C. Benoist

Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur

A. Benoît

Grenoble Alpes University

S. Berta

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

A. Bideaud

Grenoble Alpes University

M. Birkinshaw

University of Bristol

O. Bourrion

Grenoble Alpes University

D. Boutigny

Universite Savoie Mont Blanc

M. Bremer

University of Bristol

M. Calvo

Grenoble Alpes University

A. Cappi

Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

L. Chiappetti

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

A. Catalano

Grenoble Alpes University

M. De Petris

Sapienza University of Rome

F. X. Désert

Grenoble Alpes University

S. Doyle

Cardiff University

E. F.C. Driessen

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

L. Faccioli

University Paris-Saclay

C. Ferrari

Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur

S. Fotopoulou

Durham University

F. Gastaldello

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

P. Giles

University of Bristol

A. Gomez

Centro de Astrobiologia (CAB)

J. Goupy

Grenoble Alpes University

O. Hahn

Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur

Cathy Horellou

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Astronomy and Plasmaphysics, Extragalactic Astrophysics

F. Kéruzoré

Grenoble Alpes University

E. Koulouridis

University Paris-Saclay

National Observatory of Athens

C. Kramer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

B. Ladjelate

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Guilaine Lagache

Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille

S. Leclercq

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

J.F. Lestrade

Paris Observatory

J. F. Maciás-Pérez

Grenoble Alpes University

B. Maughan

University of Bristol

S. Maurogordato

Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur

P. D. Mauskopf

Cardiff University

Arizona State University

A. Monfardini

Grenoble Alpes University

F. Pacaud

University of Bonn

L. Perotto

Grenoble Alpes University

M. Pierre

University Paris-Saclay

G. Pisano

Cardiff University

E. Pompei

European Southern Observatory Santiago

N. Ponthieu

Grenoble Alpes University

V. Revéret

University Paris-Saclay

A. Ritacco

Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS)

Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale

C. Romero

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

H. Roussel

Pierre and Marie Curie University (UPMC)

F. Ruppin

Grenoble Alpes University

M. Sánchez Portal

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

K. Schuster

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

M. Sereno

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

National Institute for Nuclear Physics

S. Shu

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

A. Sievers

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

C. Tucker

Cardiff University

K. Umetsu

Academia Sinica

Astronomy and Astrophysics

0004-6361 (ISSN) 1432-0746 (eISSN)

Vol. 642 A126

Subject Categories

Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology

Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics

Geophysics

DOI

10.1051/0004-6361/201937249

More information

Latest update

6/21/2021