An adaptive shell element for explicit dynamic analysis of failure in laminated composites Part 1: Adaptive kinematics and numerical implementation
Journal article, 2020
To introduce more fibre-reinforced polymers in cars, the automotive industry is strongly dependent on efficient modelling tools to predict the correct energy absorption in crash simulations. In this context, an adaptive modelling technique shows great potential. However, as the critical energy absorption in a crash occurs over a very short period of time, and since the deformation behaviour is very complex, car crash simulations are usually performed using explicit dynamic finite element solvers. Therefore, any practical adaptive technique must be adapted to an explicit setting in a software available to the automotive companies. In this paper, we propose an adaptive method for explicit finite element analysis and describe its implementation in the commercial finite element solver LS-DYNA. The method allows for both so-called weak discontinuities (discontinuities in strain), which are crucial for accurate stress and intralaminar damage predictions, and strong discontinuities (discontinuities in displacements), needed for a proper representation of growing delamination cracks. In particular, we detail the implementation of the proposed method into LS-DYNA and also how we propose to remedy the non-physical oscillations arising from the implementation of the adaptive scheme in a explicit dynamic setting. The paper is concluded with numerical examples where we demonstrate the potential for the adaptive approach and also perform a detailed study on its accuracy and stability.