Aerial strategies advance volcanic gas measurements at inaccessible, strongly degassing volcanoes
Journal article, 2020

Volcanic emissions are a critical pathway in Earth's carbon cycle. Here, we show that aerial measurements of volcanic gases using unoccupied aerial systems (UAS) transform our ability to measure and monitor plumes remotely and to constrain global volatile fluxes from volcanoes. Combining multi-scale measurements from ground-based remote sensing, long-range aerial sampling, and satellites, we present comprehensive gas fluxes-3760 ± [600, 310] tons day-1 CO2 and 5150 ± [730, 340] tons day-1 SO2-for a strong yet previously uncharacterized volcanic emitter: Manam, Papua New Guinea. The CO2/ST ratio of 1.07 ± 0.06 suggests a modest slab sediment contribution to the sub-arc mantle. We find that aerial strategies reduce uncertainties associated with ground-based remote sensing of SO2 flux and enable near-real-time measurements of plume chemistry and carbon isotope composition. Our data emphasize the need to account for time averaging of temporal variability in volcanic gas emissions in global flux estimates.

Author

E. J. Liu

University College London (UCL)

University of Cambridge

A. Aiuppa

University of Palermo

A. Alan

University of Costa Rica

Santiago Arellano

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing

Marcello Bitetto

University of Palermo

N. Bobrowski

Heidelberg University

Max Planck Society

Simon Carn

Michigan Technological University

R. Clarke

University of Bristol

E. Corrales

University of Costa Rica

J. M. De Moor

National University Costa Rica

J. A. Diaz

University of Costa Rica

M. Edmonds

University of Cambridge

Tobias P. Fischer

University of New Mexico

J. Freer

University of Saskatchewan

University of Bristol

G. M. Fricke

University of New Mexico

Bo Galle

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing

G. Gerdes

Gerdes Solutions

G. Giudice

National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology

A. Gutmann

Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz

C. Hayer

University of Manchester

I. Itikarai

Rabaul Volcanological Observatory

J. Jones

University of New Mexico

E. Mason

University of Cambridge

B. T. McCormick Kilbride

University of Manchester

K. Mulina

Rabaul Volcanological Observatory

S. Nowicki

University of New Mexico

K. Rahilly

University of New Mexico

T. Richardson

University of Bristol

J. Rüdiger

Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz

C. I. Schipper

Victoria University of Wellington

I. M. Watson

University of Bristol

K. Wood

University of Bristol

Science advances

2375-2548 (eISSN)

Vol. 6 44 abb9103

Subject Categories

Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences

Physical Geography

Environmental Sciences

DOI

10.1126/sciadv.abb9103

PubMed

33127674

More information

Latest update

11/24/2020