CFD based form factor determination method
Journal article, 2021

The 1978 ITTC Power Prediction method is used to predict the propulsive power of ships through towing tank testing. The form factor approach and its determination in this method have been questioned. This paper investigates the possibility to improve the power predictions by introducing Combined CFD/EFD Method where the experimental determination of form factor is replaced by double body RANS computations applied for open cases KVLCC2 and KCS, including first-time published towing tank tests of KVLCC2 at ballast condition including an experimental uncertainty analysis specifically derived for the form factor. Computations from nine organisations and seven CFD codes are compared to the experiments. The form factor predictions for both hulls in design loading condition compared well with the experimental results in general. For the KVLCC2 ballast condition, majority of the form factors were under-predicted while staying within the experimental uncertainty. Speed dependency is observed with the application of ITTC57 line but it is reduced with the Katsui line and nearly eliminated by numerical friction lines. Comparison of the full-scale viscous resistance predictions obtained by the extrapolations from model scale and direct full-scale computations show that the Combined CFD/EFD Method show significantly less scatter and may thus be a preferred approach.

Experimental uncertainty analysis

Ship resistance

Form factor

Combined CFD/EFD Methods


Scale effects


Kadir Burak Korkmaz

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Vehicle Engineering and Autonomous Systems

SSPA Sweden AB

Sofia Werner

SSPA Sweden AB

Nobuaki Sakamoto

National Maritime Research Institute

Patrick Queutey

Laboratoire de Recherche en Hydrodynamique, Energetique et Environnement Atmospherique

Ganbo Deng

Laboratoire de Recherche en Hydrodynamique, Energetique et Environnement Atmospherique

Gao Yuling

Shanghai Ship and Shipping Research Institute

Dong Guoxiang

Shanghai Ship and Shipping Research Institute

Kevin Maki

University of Michigan

Haixuan Ye

University of Michigan

Ayhan Akinturk

National Research Council Canada

Tanvir Sayeed

National Research Council Canada

Takanori Hino

Yokohama National University

Feng Zhao

China Ship Scientific Research Centre (CSSRC)

Tahsin Tezdogan

University of Strathclyde

Yigit Kemal Demirel

University of Strathclyde

Rickard Bensow

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Marine Technology

Ocean Engineering

0029-8018 (ISSN)

Vol. 220 108451

Förbättrade prognosmetoder för sjöfarten

VINNOVA (2017-02953), 2017-11-15 -- 2020-12-31.

Subject Categories

Aerospace Engineering

Applied Mechanics

Vehicle Engineering



More information

Latest update