An adaptive shell element for explicit dynamic analysis of failure in laminated composites Part 2: Progressive failure and model validation
Journal article, 2021
To enable modelling of the progressive failure of large, laminated composite components under crash or impact loading, it is key to have a numerical methodology that is both efficient and numerically robust. A potential way is to adopt an adaptive method where the structure is initially represented by an equivalent single-layer shell model, which during the analysis is adaptively transformed to a high-resolution layer-wise model in areas where higher accuracy is required. Such a method was recently developed and implemented in the commercial finite element solver LS-DYNA, aiming at explicit crash analysis (Främby, Fagerström and Karlsson: An adaptive shell element for explicit dynamic analysis of failure in laminated composites - Part 1: Adaptive kinematics and numerical implementation, 2020). In the current work, the method is extended to the case of interacting inter- and intralaminar damage evolution. As a key part, we demonstrate the importance of properly regularising the intralaminar failure described by a smeared-crack model, and show that neglecting to account for the crack-versus-mesh orientation may lead to significant errors in the predicted energy dissipation. We also validate the adaptive approach against a four-point beam bending test with matrix-induced delamination growth, and simultaneously show the capability of the proposed method to – at lower computational expense – replicate the results from a refined, non-adaptive model.