Three-dimensional bioprinting using a coaxial needle with viscous inks in bone tissue engineering - An in vitro study
Journal article, 2020

Introduction: Vascularized autologous tissue grafts are considered 'gold standard' for the management of larger bony defects in the craniomaxillofacial area. This modality does however carry limitations, such as the absolute requirement for healthy donor tissues and recipient vessels. In addition, the significant morbidity of large bone graft is deterrent to fibula bone flap use. Therefore, less morbid strategies would be beneficial. The purpose of this study was to develop a printing method to manufacture scaffold structure with viable stem cells. Materials and Methods: In total, three different combinations of ground beta tri-calcium phosphate and CELLINK (bioinks) were printed with a nozzle to identify a suitable bioink for three-dimensional printing. Subsequently, a coaxial needle, with three different nozzle gauge combinations, was evaluated for printing of the bioinks. Scaffold structures (grids) were then printed alone and with additional adipose stem cells before being transferred into an active medium and incubated overnight. Following incubation, grid stability was evaluated by assessing the degree of maintained grid outline, and cell viability was determined using the live/dead cell assay. Results: Among the three evaluated combinations of bioinks, two resulted in good printability for bioprinting. Adequate printing was obtained with two out of the three nozzle gauge combinations tested. However, due to the smaller total opening, one combination revealed a better stability. Intact grids with maintained stability were obtained using Ink B23 and Ink B42, and approximately 80% of the printed stem cells were viable following 24 hours. Discussion: Using a coaxial needle enables printing of a stable scaffold with viable stem cells. Furthermore, cell viability is maintained after the bioprinting process.


in vitro


Adipose stem cells



Java Walladbegi

University of Gothenburg

Christian Schaefer

University of Gothenburg

Elin Pernevik

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry

Sanna Sämfors

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry

Göran Kjeller

University of Gothenburg

Paul Gatenholm

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry

George K. Sándor

University of Oulu

Lars Rasmusson

University of Gothenburg

Linköping University Hospital

Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery

22310746 (ISSN) 22493816 (eISSN)

Vol. 10 2 370-376

Subject Categories

Biomaterials Science

Medical Materials

Other Industrial Biotechnology



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