Affordable and Clean Energy: A Study on the Advantages and Disadvantages of the Main Modalities
Book chapter, 2020

The purpose of this study is to identify several renewable and clean energy sources and investigate their accessibility. The structuring of the energetic sources was outlined to display the advantages and disadvantages of their use. To do so, the literature review method and the snowball method were used as the research methodology. Previous results had determined the elements of a sample of the main existing forms of energy. Therefore, this research analysed the following sources: solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, thermoelectric energy with renewable fuels, tidal energy, biogas energy, geothermal energy and hydrogen energy. The results discuss the benefits of using sustainable energies, such as being helpful to the environment, aswell as the implementation obstacles that, in this case, are stripped down to the high financial cost of initial investment. Because no previous research provided a structure to compare different energy forms, this study is expected to act as an initial guide for researchers and professionals in the field. As a limitation and recommendation for future research efforts, it is suggested to discover and verify mechanisms capable of reducing the high initial investment costs associated with sustainable energies.


Sustainable development goals

Clean energy

Goal seven



Pablo Carpejani

Universidade Federal do Parana

Erica Tessaro de Jesus

Universidade Federal do Parana

Barbara Luzia Santor Bonfim Catapan

Universidade Federal do Parana

Sergio Eduardo Gouvea da Costa

Universidade Federal do Parana

Edson Pinheiro de Lima

Universidade Federal do Parana

Ubirata Tortato

Pontifical Catholic University of Parana – PUCPR

Carla Gonçalves Machando

Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Supply and Operations Management

Bernardo Richter

Universidade Federal do Parana

International Business, Trade and Institutional Sustainability


Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Subject Categories

Other Environmental Engineering

Energy Systems



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