A Practical Speed Loss Prediction Model at Arbitrary Wave Heading for Ship Voyage Optimization
Journal article, 2021

This paper proposes a semi-empirical model to predict a ship’s speed loss at arbitrary wave heading. In the model, the formulas that estimate a ship’s added resistance due to waves attacking from different heading angles have been further developed. A correction factor is proposed to consider the nonlinear effect due to large waves in power estimation. The formulas are developed and verified by model tests of 5 ships in regular waves with various heading angles. The full-scale measurements from three different types of ships, i.e., a PCTC, a container ship, and a chemical tanker, are used to validate the proposed model for speed loss prediction in irregular waves. The effect of the improved model for speed loss prediction on a ship’s voyage optimization is also investigated. The results indicate that a ship’s voyage optimization solutions can be significantly affected by the prediction accuracy of speed loss caused by waves.

Irregular waves

Speed loss

Arbitrary wave heading

Full-scale measurement

Added resistance due to waves

Voyage optimization


Xiao Lang

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Marine Technology

Wengang Mao

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Marine Technology

Journal of Marine Science and Application

1671-9433 (ISSN) 1993-5048 (eISSN)

Vol. 20 3 410-425

EcoSail - Eco-friendly and customer-driven Sail plan optimisation service

European Commission (EC) (EC/H2020/820593), 2018-11-01 -- 2021-04-30.

Subject Categories

Applied Mechanics

Marine Engineering

Probability Theory and Statistics



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4/5/2022 5