Low spatial peak-to-average power ratio transmission for improved energy efficiency in massive mimo systems
Journal article, 2021
A significant portion of the operating power of a base station is consumed by power amplifiers (PAs). Much of this power is dissipated in the form of heat, as the overall efficiency of currently deployed PAs is typically very low. This is because the structure of conventional precoding techniques typically results in a relatively high variation in output power at different antennas in the array, and many PAs are operated well below saturation to avoid distortion of the transmitted signals. In this work, we use a realistic model for power consumption in PAs and study the impact of power variation across antennas in the array on the energy efficiency of a massive MIMO downlink system. We introduce a family of linear precoding matrices that allow us to control the spatial peak-to-average power ratio by projecting a fraction of the transmitted power onto the null space of the channel. These precoding matrices preserve the structure of conventional precoders; e.g., they suppress multiuser interference when used together with zeroforcing precoding and bring advantages over these precoders by operating PAs in a more power-efficient region and reducing the total radiated distortion. Our numerical results show that by controlling the power variations between antennas in the array and incorporating the nonlinearity properties of PA into the precoder optimization, significant gains in energy efficiency can be achieved over conventional precoding techniques.
Nonlinear power amplifier