Effect of Substrate Orientation on Melt Pool during Multi-Layer Deposition in V-Groove with Gas Metal Arc
Paper in proceeding, 2021

Thermo-fluid dynamic and experimental approaches are used to investigate the influence of 20° uphill, downhill and sideway substrate orientation during metal deposition over a previously deposited bead in a V-groove. The computational fluid dynamic model with free surface deformation and metal transfer gives insight into the melt pool flow and causes of defect formation observed on the solidified beads. The experimental metallographs, high-speed images and computational results show good agreement. It is found that the deposition of a second layer on a smooth first layer cooled down to room temperature leads to large changes in melt pool flow pattern at 20° substrate inclination compared to flat condition. It results in undercut and humps with the uphill orientation and undercut with the side inclination. Therefore, lower angle range is necessary for multilayer gas metal arc deposition for these two last configurations.

gas metal arc welding



substrate orientation

melt flow

reinforced bead

metal deposition



Pradip Aryal

University West

Kjell Hurtig

University West

Fredrik Sikström

University West

Håkan Nilsson

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Fluid Dynamics

Isabelle Choquet

University West

Proceedings of 7th World Congress on Mechanical, Chemical, and Material Engineering (MCM'21)

HTFF 130
9781927877616 (ISBN)

7th World Congress on Mechanical, Chemical, and Material Engineering (MCM'21)
Prague (virtual), Czech Republic,

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Areas of Advance



Subject Categories

Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology

Other Materials Engineering

Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics


Basic sciences


C3SE (Chalmers Centre for Computational Science and Engineering)





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