Identifying and evaluating recirculation strategies for industry in the nordic countries
Journal article, 2021

The manufacturing industry in the Nordic countries aims to include closing product and material loops to recover values in their circular economy strategies. Recirculating strategies for products and materials are required for existing products that are part of the stock and are also anticipated to be aligned with products designed for circularity and circular business models in the future. Options to capture value of discarded products are diverse and include reuse, remanufacturing and material recycling. The Circular Economy Integration in the Nordic Industry for enhanced sustain-ability and competitiveness (CIRCit) project developed a framework to guide decision makers in the industry on how to identify suitable treatments and subsequent use at the end of use or end of life of a product and how to select among different options. Factors considered in the assessment include technical feasibility, necessary efforts, networks of business partners, legal implications and overall sustainability aspects. Our empirical studies show great support for decision-makers in the value recovery of different products with different complexity levels. It is also concluded that the properties of products at their end of use are the main drivers behind selecting a proper recirculation strategy. This study contributes with an empirical evaluation and a consistent terminology framework for recirculation options. The general setup is relevant for the Nordic countries.

Performance economy

Closing the loop





Resource recovery



Material recycling


Jutta Hildenbrand

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Johan Dahlström

Kinnarps AB

Sasha Shabazi

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Martin Kurdve

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Supply and Operations Management


23134321 (eISSN)

Vol. 6 4 74

Subject Categories

Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics

Other Mechanical Engineering

Environmental Management



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