4D modelling using virtual collaborative planning and scheduling
Journal article, 2021

During the last decades, the introduction of Building Information Models (BIM) has opened new possibilities to ensure better communication and a shared understanding between stakeholders in construction projects. Similar benefits have been found in 4D simulations of the schedule. While BIM and 4D use has seen a steady increase, the potential benefits have not fully been realised, primarily due to tools not supporting and enabling the full potential of collaborative stakeholder involvement in scheduling. The benefits of 4D simulations come from improving communication between stakeholders. While traditional 4D modelling connects an existing BIM model with an existing schedule, a move from this type of passive 4D visualisation toward social co-creation enables all stakeholders to be involved in the scheduling process. This connection is further enhanced with the use of Virtual Reality (VR). Recent research has shown VR to enhance understanding and perception of the space and details and, thus, a better understanding of the project. This paper maps collaborative planning and scheduling method and traditional 4D scheduling using process modelling. This mapping is followed by implementing the 4D collaborative planning and scheduling method in the virtual project planning system with support for a multi-user interactive VR environment. The system enables social co-creation both during the planning and scheduling and during 4D modelling; it improves understanding of the project and the planning and scheduling.

planning and scheduling

Head-mounted displays

4D modelling

Virtual Reality

Collaborative work


Mikael Viklund Tallgren

Chalmers, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Construction Management

Mattias Roupé

Chalmers, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Construction Management

Mikael Johansson

Chalmers, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Construction Management

Journal of Information Technology in Construction

18744753 (ISSN)

Vol. 26 763-782

Digital Twin Cities Centre

VINNOVA (2019-00041), 2020-02-29 -- 2024-12-31.

Virtual Produktion Planning with the help of BIM and visualization, Phase III

Development Fund of the Swedish Construction Industry (SBUF) (13609), 2018-11-01 -- 2021-03-31.

Subject Categories

Construction Management

Human Computer Interaction



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