A mm-Wave Phased-Array Fed Torus Reflector Antenna with ±30° Scan Range for Massive-MIMO Base-Station Applications
Journal article, 2022

A phased-array fed reflector antenna system is presented which can be used for mm-wave base station applications. The proposed system is designed to support massive-Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) scenarios within a wide coverage (±30°) in the azimuth plane and a limited coverage at the elevation plane. A design and characterization methodology has been established to optimize the system for the operation in various line-of-sight conditions by adopting the maximum-ratio-transmission (MRT) and zero-forcing (ZF) MIMO algorithms. A two-user MIMO case study has been considered for the evaluation of the key system performance metrics, i.e. the effective isotropic radiated power, power consumption, signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR). This study demonstrates that the phased-array fed reflector concept has a major advantage over traditional direct-radiating phased array (DRPA) antennas to reduce energy consumption. In the present example, it requires 12–14 dB less transmitted power as compared to the MRT-beamformed DRPAs for the same SNR, and 26–27 dB less transmitted power relatively to ZF-beamformed DRPA systems for the same SINR. A prototype, employing a 55 cm diameter torus reflector and operating at 28 GHz-band, has been manufactured and tested. The measurement results agree well with simulations.

Phased arrays



MIMO communication


reflector antenna

Signal to noise ratio


wide scan range


focal plane arrays

Array signal processing

Phased arrays


Amr Elsakka

Eindhoven University of Technology

A. Farsaei

Eindhoven University of Technology

A. J. Van den Biggelaar

Eindhoven University of Technology

A. C.F. Reniers

Eindhoven University of Technology

Martin Johansson


Rob Maaskant

Eindhoven University of Technology

U. Johannsen

Eindhoven University of Technology

Oleg Iupikov

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Communication, Antennas and Optical Networks

A. B. Smolders

Eindhoven University of Technology

Marianna Ivashina

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Communication, Antennas and Optical Networks

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation

0018926x (ISSN) 15582221 (eISSN)

Vol. In Press

Subject Categories

Communication Systems



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