Design Considerations of Low Bypass Ratio Mixed Flow Turbofan Engines with Large Power Extraction
Journal article, 2022
The possibility of extracting large amounts of electrical power from turbofan engines is becoming increasingly desirable from an aircraft perspective. The power consumption of a future fighter aircraft is expected to be much higher than today's fighter aircraft. Previous work in this area has concentrated on the study of power extraction for high bypass ratio engines. This motivates a thorough investigation of the potential and limitations with regards to performance of a low bypass ratio mixed flow turbofan engine. A low bypass ratio mixed flow turbofan engine was modeled, and key parts of a fighter mission were simulated. The investigation shows how power extraction from the high-pressure turbine affects performance of a military engine in different parts of a mission within the flight envelope. An important conclusion from the analysis is that large amounts of power can be extracted from the turbofan engine at high power settings without causing too much penalty on thrust and specific fuel consumption, if specific operating conditions are fulfilled. If the engine is operating (i) at, or near its maximum overall pressure ratio but (ii) further away from its maximum turbine inlet temperature limit, the detrimental effect of power extraction on engine thrust and thrust specific fuel consumption will be limited. On the other hand, if the engine is already operating at its maximum turbine inlet temperature, power extraction from the high-pressure shaft will result in a considerable thrust reduction. The results presented will support the analysis and interpretation of fighter mission optimization and cycle design for future fighter engines aimed for large power extraction. The results are also important with regards to aircraft design, or more specifically, in deciding on the best energy source for power consumers of the aircraft.
low bypass ratio mixed flow turbofan