The management and commercialisation of intellectual property in European universities
This report presents the results of an empirical study that explores intellectual property (IP) management practices among universities in the European Union. The report presents models and processes of IP management and research commercialisation – and their interdependencies. Furthermore, the report identifies four main challenges for IP management, including lack of funding for proof-of-concept work, resource constraints, a broad range of technologies and industries with which technology transfer offices (TTOs) need to work, and a non-existent local industry combined with legitimacy problems when trying to partner internationally. All in all, these challenges typically make IP management in the university setting more difficult than in the private industry setting. The dominant and linear IP management process that focuses primarily on value capture – the appropriation model – is criticised, and interviewees see a need to shift focus to better interact with industry and focus more on value creation and utilisation rather than only on appropriation.