Development of antimicrobial gelatin-ulvan-beeswax composite films: Optimization of formulation using mixture design methodology
Journal article, 2023

A new generation of antimicrobial film was developed by incorporation of ulvan extracted from Ulva intestinalis into gelatin from common carp scale and its water sensitivity was reduced with addition of beeswax. Optimum composition of gelatin (0–100%w/w), ulvan (0–100%w/w) and beeswax (0–10%w/w) for achieving composite films with minimum water solubility (S) and water vapor permeability (WVP) and maximum tensile strength (TS), elongation at break point (EAB) and antibacterial effect on E. coli (EC) were investigated using mixture design methodology. Both pure gelatin and ulvan films and their composites had relatively good mechanical and optical properties. Addition of ulvan to gelatin produced composite films with good antibacterial properties but water resistance of all the films was weak. Addition of beeswax up to ∼5 % improved the water resistance and mechanical properties of the films without jeopardizing their antibacterial properties. The final optimum formulation with a desirability of 0.709 was achieved as 52.18 % of gelatin, 40.83 % of ulvan and 6.97 % of beeswax resulting in a minimum possible S (40 %) and WVP (1.86 10−10 g/ms Pa) and maximum possible TS (6.23 MPa) and EAB (89 %) with good EC (7.66 mm). Finally, good mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the optimum composite film was confirmed. Altogether, a combination of ulvan and beeswax can be a promising solution for development of gelatin films with both antimicrobial properties and lower water sensitivity.


Mixture design

Fish scale gelatin


Antimicrobial film



Mohsen Kazemi

Gorgan University

Kambiz Jahanbin

Shahrood University of Technology

S. M. Ojagh

Gorgan University

Mehdi Abdollahi

Chalmers, Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science

International Journal of Biological Macromolecules

0141-8130 (ISSN) 18790003 (eISSN)

Vol. 231 123384

Subject Categories

Biological Sciences





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2/3/2023 9