Levels of Automation in Manufacturing
Journal article, 2008
The objective of this paper is to increase the general understanding of task allocation in semi-automated systems and to provide a systematic approach for changing the level of automation. The paper presents a literature review of definitions and taxonomies for levels of automation (LoA) across multiple scientific and industrial domains. A synthesizing concept is suggested, including a LoA definition and taxonomy aimed for application in the manufacturing domain. Results suggest that the level of automation should be divided into two separate variables, i.e. physical/mechanical LoA and cognitive/information-related LoA. Further, the idea is that LoA in a manufacturing context can be described and assessed using seven-step reference scales for both physical and cognitive LoA.