Ethanol production from hexoses, pentoses, and dilute-acid hydrolyzate by Mucor indicus
Journal article, 2005
Consumption of hexoses and pentoses and production of ethanol by Mucor indicus were investigated in both synthetic media and dilute-acid hydrolyzates. The fungus was able to grow in a poor medium containing only carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, and magnesium sources. However, the cultivation took more than a week and the ethanol yield was only 0.2 g g -1 . Enrichment of the medium by addition of trace metals, particularly zinc and yeast extract, improved the growth rate and yield, such that the cultivation was completed in less than 24 h and the ethanol and biomass yields were increased to 0.40 and 0.20 g g -1 , respectively. The fungus was able to assimilate glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose, and produced ethanol with yields of 0.40, 0.34, 0.39, and 0.18 g g -1 , respectively. However, arabinose was poorly consumed and no formation of ethanol was detected. Glycerol was the major by-product in the cultivation on the hexoses, while formation of glycerol and xylitol were detected in the cultivation of the fungus on xylose. The fungus was able to take up the sugars present in dilute-acid hydrolyzate as well as the inhibitors, acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethyl furfural. M. indicus was able to grow under anaerobic conditions when glucose was the sole carbon source, but not on xylose or the hydrolyzate. The yield of ethanol in anaerobic cultivation on glucose was 0.46 g g -1 . © 2004 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.