Energy Savings in Existing Swedish Apartment Buildings - Some Aspects on Demand Controlled Ventilation and Individual Metering
Doctoral thesis, 2006
The energy issue is rising on the agendas all over the world and energy efficiency and energy saving become more and more important. The building sector stands for a large part of the total energy used, e.g. for space heating and cooling, heating of domestic hot water and household electricity and there is a recent European directive related to the energy performance of buildings. The influence of occupant behaviour on the use of energy in the residential building sector has furthermore got increased attention in recent years.
The overall aim of the work is to contribute to the knowledge about possible energy savings in existing Swedish apartment buildings. The more specific aim is to analyse the influence of demand controlled ventilation and room temperature on the heat requirements in a typical Swedish apartment building. The aim related to demand controlled ventilation is to analyse the performance of a system for Swedish apartment buildings developed as a part of the research work. The aim related to demand controlled room temperature is to analyse a novel system developed as an individual heat (or comfort) metering system. The analysis also includes a more general evaluation of individual metering.
The work is strongly related to a comprehensive renovation project recently carried out by the municipal housing company Bostads AB Gårdsten. A demand controlled ventilation system is installed and evaluated in one of the buildings. The analyses related to individual metering, including demand controlled room temperature (comfort metering), are carried out using individual metering results in 255 apartments during a period of four years.
The analyses show that the performance of the heating system has a major influence on the possibilities to utilise demand controlled ventilation and room temperature in apartment buildings. Another general conclusion is that individual metering of heat for space heating has a rather small influence on the overall potential for energy savings in apartment buildings. A third conclusion is that individual metering requires a considerable effort by the building owner both concerning operation and maintenance and administration.
indoor air quality
Apartment buildings demand controlled ventilation