The Affective Temperaments and Well-Being: A Study among Adolescents in Sweden, Iran, and El Salvador
Paper in proceedings, 2011
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the affective temperament model in differences in well-being among adolescents from Sweden (n = 135), Iran (n = 122), and El Salvador (n = 130). The Affective Temperaments (AFTs) model categorizes participants in four different temperaments using the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): self-fulfilling (high PA and low NA), high affective (high PA and high NA), low affective (low PA and low NA), and self-destructive (low PA and high NA). Participants self-reported life satisfaction (Satisfaction with Life Scale) and psychological well-being (Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales). The results show that self-fulfilling adolescents reported higher life satisfaction and psychological well-being than self-destructives across cultures. Nevertheless, despite reporting high negative emotions, high affective adolescents also reported higher levels of well-being. Consequentially, the low affective adolescents also reported higher levels of well-being despite reporting experiencing low positive emotions. Moreover, psychological well-being was positively related to life satisfaction across cultures and temperaments. Specifically, the sub-scale of self-acceptance was a strong predictor of life satisfaction. The role of positive emotions and self-acceptance among youth is discussed. The AFTs model is suggested to offer something unique by taking into account the interaction of PA and NA.