Liposome and lipid bilayer arrays towards biosensing applications
Journal article, 2010
Sensitive and selective biosensors for high-throughput screening are having an increasing impact in modern medical care. The establishment of robust protein biosensing platforms however remains challenging, especially when membrane proteins are involved. Although this type of proteins is of enormous relevance since they are considered in >60% of the pharmaceutical drug targets, their fragile nature (i.e., the requirement to preserve their natural lipid environment to avoid denaturation and loss of function) puts strong additional prerequisites onto a successful biochip. In this review, the leading approaches to create lipid membrane-based arrays towards the creation of membrane protein biosensing platforms are described. Liposomes assembled in micro- and nanoarrays and the successful set-ups containing functional membrane proteins, as well as the use of liposomes in networks, are discussed in the first part. Then, the complementary approaches to create cell-mimicking supported membrane patches on a substrate in an array format will be addressed. Finally, the progress in assembling free-standing (functional) lipid bilayers over nanopore arrays for ion channel sensing will be reported. This review illustrates the rapid pace by which advances are being made towards the creation of a heterogeneous biochip for the high-throughput screening of membrane proteins for diagnostics, drug screening, or drug discovery purposes.