Spatial Diversity Performance of Multiport Antennas in the Presence of a Butler Network
Journal article, 2013

The main concern of this paper is to study the presence of a cascaded Butler network in diversity antenna systems. The advantages of a cascaded Butler network in 2D multipath environments have been already shown. These advantages are limited to either correlated or nonuniform multipath environments with a line-of-sight component. In the frame of this paper, for the first time, we show a further advantage of a cascaded Butler network in 3D multipath environments, including the effects of coupling. This advantage is associated with an improved convergence in received signals’ covariance matrix in a multipath environment wherein the number of independent incoming waves is limited, i.e., non-rich multipath environment. For this purpose, we use a simulation tool in which a multipath scenario with certain number of incoming waves is emulated and some selected multiport antennas are exposed to it. Afterwards, the simulated random received signals are used to yield different performance metrics like spatial correlation. This advantage achieves considerable practical interest since a typical actual multipath scenario is most likely a non-rich multipath environment.


Multiport antennas

multiport matching efficiency

effective diversity gain

richness threshold.

Butler network


Nima Jamaly

Chalmers, Signals and Systems, Communication, Antennas and Optical Networks

Anders Derneryd

Lund University


Y. Rahmat-Samii

University of California

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation

0018926x (ISSN) 15582221 (eISSN)

Vol. 61 11 5697-5705 6579710

Areas of Advance

Information and Communication Technology

Subject Categories


Communication Systems


C3SE (Chalmers Centre for Computational Science and Engineering)



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