Opportunistic Routing in Low Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks
Journal article, 2014
Opportunistic routing is widely known to have substantially better performance than unicast routing in wireless networks with lossy links. However, wireless sensor networks are usually duty cycled, i.e., they frequently enter sleep states to ensure long network life-time. This renders existing opportunistic routing schemes impractical, as they assume that nodes are always awake and can overhear other transmissions. In this paper we introduce ORW, a practical opportunistic routing scheme for wireless sensor networks. ORW uses a novel opportunistic routing metric, EDC, that reflects the expected number of duty-cycled wakeups that are required to successfully deliver a packet from source to destination. We devise distributed algorithms that find the EDC-optimal forwarding and demonstrate using analytical performance models and simulations that EDC-based opportunistic routing results in significantly reduced delay and improved energy efficiency compared to traditional unicast routing. In addition, we evaluate the performance of ORW in both simulations and testbed-based experiments. Our results show that ORW reduces radio duty cycles on average by 50% (up to 90% on individual nodes) and delays by 30% to 90% when compared to the state of the art.
Wireless Sensor Networks