Large-Eddy Simulation Study of Thermally Stratified Canopy Flow
Journal article, 2015
A number of large-eddy simulations (LES) are performed for the calculation of the airflow over a horizontally homogeneous forest canopy for a wide range of thermal stability classes. For the first time, results from LES of a stably stratified canopy are also presented. Simulation results compare favourably to recent field measurements over a pine forest in south-eastern Sweden. The simple heat source model was found to perform adequately and to yield within-canopy heat-flux profiles typically observed for stable conditions in the field. Evidence was found for a layer of unstably stratified air in the canopy trunk space under stable stratification. The importance of a secondary wind-speed maximum is emphasized in stable conditions. Examination of the budget equation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) revealed that, during stable stratification, pressure transport plays an increasingly important role in supplying the canopy region with TKE.
Atmospheric boundary layer
Turbulent kinetic energy budget