High vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscope based on a scanning tunneling microscope
Journal article, 2016
In this paper, we present the construction of a high-vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HV-TERS) system that allows in situ sample preparation and measurement. A detailed description of the prototype instrument is presented with experimental validation of its use and novel ex situ experimental results using the HV-TERS system. The HV-TERS system includes three chambers held under a 10(-7) Pa vacuum. The three chambers are an analysis chamber, a sample preparation chamber, and a fast loading chamber. The analysis chamber is the core chamber and contains a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and a Raman detector coupled with a 50 x 0.5 numerical aperture objective. The sample preparation chamber is used to produce single-crystalline metal and sub-monolayer molecular films by molecular beam epitaxy. The fast loading chamber allows ex situ preparation of samples for HV-TERS analysis. Atomic resolution can be achieved by the STM on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. We demonstrate the measurement of localized temperature using the Stokes and anti-Stokes TERS signals from a monolayer of 1,2-benzenedithiol on a gold film using a gold tip. Additionally, plasmonic catalysis can be monitored label-free at the nanoscale using our device. Moreover, the HV-TERS experiments show simultaneously activated infrared and Raman vibrational modes, Fermi resonance, and some other non-linear effects that are not observed in atmospheric TERS experiments. The high spatial and spectral resolution and pure environment of high vacuum are beneficial for basic surface studies. (C) 2016 AIP Publishing LLC.