Electric and magnetic losses modeled by a stable hybrid with explicit-implicit time-stepping for Maxwell's equations
Journal article, 2008

A stable hybridization of the finite-element method (FEM) and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme for Maxwell's equations that allows for electric and magnetic losses is presented for two-dimensional problems. It combines the flexibility of the FEM with the efficiency of the FDTD scheme. The electric and magnetic losses are treated by the FEM on an unstructured mesh, which allows for local mesh refinement in order to resolve rapid variations in the material parameters and/or the electromagnetic field. The hybrid method is based directly on Ampère's and Faraday's law and it is stable up to the Courant stability limit of the FDTD method. The hybrid method shows second order convergence for smooth scatterers. The bistatic radar cross section (RCS) for a circular metal cylinder with a lossy coating converges to the analytical solution and an accuracy of 2% is achieved for about 20 points per wavelength. The monostatic RCS for an airfoil that features sharp corners yields a lower order of convergence and it is found to agree well with what can be expected for singular fields at the sharp corners. A careful convergence study with resolutions from 20 to 140 points per wavelength provides accurate extrapolated results for this non-trivial test case, which makes it possible to use as a reference problem for scattering codes that model both electric and magnetic losses.

Finite-difference time-domain

Magnetic losses

Explicit-implicit time-stepping

Radar absorbing material


Lossy coating

Radar cross section

Finite-element method



Tomas Halleröd

Chalmers, Signals and Systems, Signal Processing and Biomedical Engineering

Thomas Rylander

Chalmers, Signals and Systems, Signal Processing and Biomedical Engineering

Journal of Computational Physics

0021-9991 (ISSN) 1090-2716 (eISSN)

Vol. 227 9 4499-4511

Subject Categories

Computational Mathematics

Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering



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