Exceptionally rapid oxime and hydrazone formation promoted by catalytic amine buffers with low toxicity
Journal article, 2018
Hydrazone and oxime bond formation between α-nucleophiles (e.g. hydrazines, alkoxy-amines) and carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) is convenient and is widely applied in multiple fields of research. While the reactants are simple, a substantial drawback is the relatively slow reaction at neutral pH. Here we describe a novel molecular strategy for accelerating these reactions, using bifunctional buffer compounds that not only control pH but also catalyze the reaction. The buffers can be employed at pH 5-9 (5-50 mM) and accelerate reactions by several orders of magnitude, yielding second-order rate constants of >10 M-1s-1. Effective bifunctional amines include 2-(aminomethyl)imidazoles and N,N-dimethylethylenediamine. Unlike previous diaminobenzene catalysts, the new buffer amines are found to have low toxicity to human cells, and can be used to promote reactions in cellular applications.