The role of multilateral climate funds in urban transitions between 1994 and 2014
Journal article, 2018

The developing world is currently undergoing fast urbanization, and urban infrastructure systems built today are likely to influence global greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption patterns for decades to come. This study draws on the analysis of 1994–2014 climate finance investments by five major multilateral climate funds that have a record of directly supporting urban climate mitigation and adaptation actions in cities across developing countries. The analysis indicates that the administered funds provided very limited support to urban climate finance across the developing world. In middle-income countries mitigation projects within transport sector dominated both urban multilateral climate finance and co-finance. Cities in low-income countries attracted non-considerable amounts of urban climate finance, most of which were supporting urban adaptation efforts. The study concludes by outlining that multilateral climate funds should give higher priority to urban climate finance on their investment portfolios with a particular emphasis on rapidly urbanizing cities in low-income countries.

climate finance

climate change

developing countries


urban infrastructure


Amar Causevic

The Royal Swedish Academy of Science

Sujeetha Selvakkumaran

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology

Journal of Sustainable Finance and Investment

2043-0795 (ISSN) 2043-0809 (eISSN)

Vol. 8 3 275-299

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Subject Categories

Social Sciences Interdisciplinary

Human Geography

Climate Research



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