Throughput and energy efficiency of lock-free data structures: Execution Models and Analyses
Doctoral thesis, 2018
Concurrent data structures are key program components to harness the available parallelism in multi-core processors. Lock-free algorithmic implementations of concurrent data structures offer high scalability and possess desirable properties such as immunity to deadlocks, convoying and priority inversion. In this thesis, we develop analytical tools to model and analyze the throughput and energy consumption of concurrent lock-free data structures. We start our study with a general class of lock-free data structures. Then, we target more specialized designs for lock-free queues. Finally, we focus on the search data structures that possess different characteristics compared to previously mentioned data structures.
Performance of lock-free data structures: This thesis contributes to the problem of making ends meet between theoretical bounds and actual measured throughput. As the first step, we consider a general class of lock-free data structures and propose three analytical frameworks with different flavors. Analyses of this class also cover efficient implementations of a set of fundamental data structures that suffer from inherent sequential bottlenecks. We model the executions and examine the impact of contention on the throughput of these algorithms. Our analyses lead to optimization methods on memory management and back-off strategies.
Performance and energy efficiency of lock-free queues: We take a step further to model the throughput of lock-free operations and their interaction. Considering shared queues, as a key paradigm for data sharing, operations (En- queue, Dequeue) access the opposite ends of a queue. Same type of operations might contend with each other on a non-empty queue. However, all types of operations are subject to interaction when the queue is empty. We first decorrelate the throughput of dequeuers’ and enqueuers’ into several uncorrelated basic throughputs, and reconstruct the main throughputs as a function of these basic throughputs. Besides, we model the power dissipation and integrate it with the throughput estimations to extract the energy consumption of applications that utilize lock-free queues.
Performance of lock-free search data structures: Lock-free designs that utilize fine-grained synchronization have produced efficient implementations of search data structures. These designs reveal different characteristics compared to the previous set of lock-free data structures with inherent sequential bottlenecks. We introduce a new way of modeling and analyzing the throughput of search data structures under stationary and memoryless access patterns..