Timing of probiotic milk consumption during pregnancy and effects on the incidence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study in Norway
Journal article, 2018
Objectives To investigate whether the timing of probiotic milk intake before, during early or late pregnancy influences associations with preeclampsia and preterm delivery. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting Norway, between 1999 and 2008. Participants 70 149 singleton pregnancies resulting in live-born babies from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (no chronic disease, answered questionnaires, no placenta previaicerclage/serious malformation of fetus, first enrolment pregnancy). Only nulliparous women (n=37 050) were included in the preeclampsia analysis. Both iatrogenic and spontaneous preteml delivery (between gestational weeks 22+0 and 36+6) with spontaneous term controls (between gestational weeks 39+0 and 40+6) were included in the preterm delivery analysis resulting in 34 458 cases. Main outcome measures Adjusted OR for preeclampsia and preterm delivery according to consumption of probiotic milk at three different time periods (before pregnancy, during early and late pregnancy). Results Prohiotic milk intake in late pregnancy (but not before or in early pregnancy) was significantly associated with lower preeclampsia risk (adjusted OR: 0.80 (95% Cl 0.68 to 0.94)p-value: 0.007). Prohiotic intake during early (but not before or during late pregnancy) was significantly associated with lower risk of preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 0.79 (0.64 to 0.97)p-value: 0.03). Conclusions In this observational study, we found an association between timing of probiotic milk consumption during pregnancy and the incidence of the adverse pregnancy outcomes preeclampsia and preterm delivery. If future randomised controlled trials could establish a causal association between probiotics consumption and reduced risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery, recommending probiotics would he a promising public health measure to reduce these adverse pregnancy outcomes.