Experimental Studies on Using Butanol and Octanol Isomers as Drop-in Fuels for Diesel Engines
Doctoral thesis, 2019
This thesis explores the use of four alcohols (n-butanol, isobutanol, 2-ethylhexanol, and n-octanol) and two bio-Diesels (hydrotreated vegetable oil, or HVO, and rapeseed methyl ester) as drop-in fuels in Diesel engines. Their effects on the performance and emissions of compression ignition engines were assessed by performing experiments using light- and heavy-duty single cylinder engines under steady-state conditions.
To test the compatibility of alcohol-containing blends with existing engines, HVO and the commercial cetane number (CN) improver DTBP were used to compensate for the alcohols’ low CN values and prepare oxygenated blends with CN values similar to fossil Diesel. Blends with and without fossil Diesel were tested. Two single-cylinder engines were operated at four standard load points using production calibrated engine settings. Experiments were also performed using an advanced combustion strategy (partially premixed combustion) in which the alcohols were blended with fossil Diesel fuel directly to produce mixtures with low cetane numbers (26 or 36). The blends’ effects on spray penetration, flame development, and soot characteristics were investigated in the constant volume combustion chamber.
The results show that from a combustion point of view, the tested alcohol blends with Diesel-like CN values can be used in unmodified existing Diesel engines. Compared to conventional Diesel fuel, the oxygenated blends yielded slightly higher indicated thermal efficiencies, significantly lower soot emissions, and similar heat release profiles. Moreover, partially premixed combustion was shown to further increase thermal efficiency while reducing soot and NOx emissions.
Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Combustion and Propulsion Systems
V. T. Zhang, J. Eismark, K. Munch, and I. Denbratt, “Effects of a Wave-Shaped Piston Bowl Geometry on the Performance of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Fueled with Alcohols and Biodiesel Blends,” manuscript submitted to journal in February 2019.
Optical Diagnostics of Spray Characteristics and Soot Volume Fractions of n-Butanol, n-Octanol, Diesel, and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Blends in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber
SAE Technical Papers,; Vol. 2019-January(2019)
Paper in proceeding
Combustion Characteristics for Partially Premixed and Conventional Combustion of Butanol and Octanol Isomers in a Light Duty Diesel Engine
SAE Technical Papers,; Vol. 2017-October(2017)
Paper in proceeding
Effect of using butanol and octanol isomers on engine performance of steady state and cold start ability in different types of Diesel engines
Fuel,; Vol. 184(2016)p. 708-717
An Experimental Study on the Use of Butanol or Octanol Blends in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine
SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants,; Vol. 8(2015)
A Comparison of Drop-In Diesel Fuel Blends Containing Heavy Alcohols Considering Both Engine Properties and Global Warming Potentials
SAE Technical Papers,; Vol. 2016-Octobeer(2016)
Paper in proceeding
The goal of the thesis is to analyse the effects of using renewable fuels (namely butanol, octanol isomers and "bio-Diesel") as drop-in fuels for Diesel engines. The work presented is divided into two related projects. The first investigates the possibility of using blends of renewable fuels with fossil Diesel, and fossil-free blends, in existing Diesel engines. The second examines the performance of the renewable fuel blends when used with a new combustion strategy for advanced engines - partially premixed combustion.
The tested renewable fuels yielded slight increases in engine thermal efficiency while significantly reducing soot emissions in engines with production settings. The use of partially premixed combustion with renewable blends yielded further improvements in thermal efficiency while reducing both soot and nitrogen oxides emissions. These findings show that by combining renewable fuels with innovative technical solutions, the internal combustion engine can contribute to the development of sustainable transport and play an important role in the societies of the future.
Butanol as a fuel for Diesel engines
Swedish Energy Agency (P37176-1), 2013-09-01 -- 2016-09-01.
Butanol as fuel for Diesel engines 2
Swedish Energy Agency (37176-3), 2017-05-15 -- 2018-12-31.
Other Mechanical Engineering
Other Chemical Engineering
Areas of Advance
Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie: 4561
Chalmers University of Technology
HA2, Hörsalsvägen 4, Gothenburg
Opponent: Professor Martti Larmi, Aalto University, Finland