Measurements of fugitive emissions of vocs from stationary sources using the SOF method - Standardization efforts and results from recent studies in California
Paper in proceedings, 2019
The Solar Occultation Flux (SOF) method is used to screen and quantify VOC emissions from industrial conglomerates down to sub-areas in individual plants, such as a few tank process area or water treatment areas. The SOF method has been applied in several larger campaigns in both Europe and in the US (Mexico City 2006, Texas 2006/2009/2011/2012; Le Havre 2008, Rotterdam 2008/2010 and Antwerp 2010/2016, California 2013/20T5, Tianjin China 2016) and in more than 100 individual plant surveys over the world. The technique has been validated by comparison to other methods and tracer gas releases and it typically has an uncertainty of 30%, mostly due to uncertainties in the wind field. In the various campaign studies it has been found that the measured emissions obtained with SOF are 3–10 times higher than the reported emission obtained by calculations. The SOF method is Best Available Technology in Europe for quantitative measurements of diffuse emissions from refineries and the chemical sector. The technique is presently being standardized by the European CEN.