Widespread Molecular Outflows in the Infrared Dark Cloud G28.37+0.07: Indications of Orthogonal Outflow-filament Alignment
Journal article, 2019

We present ALMA CO(2-1) observations toward a massive infrared dark cloud G28.37+0.07. The ALMA data reveal numerous molecular (CO) outflows with a wide range of sizes throughout the cloud. Sixty-two 1.3 mm continuum cores were identified to be driving molecular outflows. We have determined the position angle in the plane-of-sky of 120 CO outflow lobes and studied their distribution. We find that the distribution of the plane-of-sky outflow position angles peaks at about 100 degrees, corresponding to a concentration of outflows with an approximately east-west direction. For most outflows, we have been able to estimate the plane-of-sky angle between the outflow axis and the filament that harbors the protostar that powers the outflow. Statistical tests strongly indicate that the distribution of outflow-filament orientations is consistent with most outflow axes being mostly orthogonal to their parent filament in three dimensions. Such alignment may result from filament fragmentation or continuous mass transportation from the filament to the embedded protostellar core. The latter is suggested by recent numerical studies with moderately strong magnetic fields.

accretion, accretion disks

stars: protostars

ISM: magnetic fields

stars: statistics

ISM: jets and outflows

galaxies: star formation


Shuo Kong

Yale University

Hector G. Arce

Yale University

Maria Jose Maureira

Max Planck Society

Yale University

Paola Caselli

Max Planck Society

Jonathan Tan

University of Virginia

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Astronomy and Plasmaphysics, Galactic Astrophysics

Francesco Fontani

Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory

Astrophysical Journal

0004-637X (ISSN) 1538-4357 (eISSN)

Vol. 874 1 104

Subject Categories

Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology


Probability Theory and Statistics



More information

Latest update