Internal stresses and activation volumes from the stress relaxation behavior of polyethylene at low deformations
Journal article, 1976
Internal stress levels and values of the activation volume have been evaluated from the kinetics of stress relaxation in annealed samples of LD and HD polyethylene. The initial deformation of the samples was varied, the maximum values amounting to ca. 1%. The temperature of the experiments was 24°C for LDPE, and 24°, 50°, and 69°C for HDPE. The internal stress level was found to be approximately proportional to the initial deformation and independent of the temperature used. Such internal stresses appear to be introduced upon deformation, since permanent stresses had been removed by careful annealing. The activation volume (v) was found to satisfy the relation vσ* ≈ 10kT, where σ* is the effective stress, i.e., the difference between the applied and internal stress, k is Boltzmann's constant, and T is the absolute temperature. This is in good agreement with results reported elsewhere for a wide variety of materials. This relation applies primarily to the exponential flow portion of the relaxation curves, but by a simple transformation the power‐law region can also be encompassed. Copyright © 1976 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.