Discovery of a Photoionized Bipolar Outflow toward the Massive Protostar G45.47+0.05
Journal article, 2019

Massive protostars generate strong radiation feedback, which may help set the mass that they achieve by the end of the accretion process. Studying such feedback is therefore crucial for understanding the formation of massive stars. We report the discovery of a photoionized bipolar outflow toward the massive protostar G45.47+0.05 using high-resolution observations at 1.3 mm with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) and at 7 mm with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). By modeling the free-free continuum, the ionized outflow is found to be a photoevaporation flow with an electron temperature of 10,000 K and an electron number density of similar to 1.5 x 10(7) cm(-3) at the center, launched from a disk of radius of 110 au. H30 alpha hydrogen recombination line emission shows strong maser amplification, with G45 being one of very few sources to show such millimeter recombination line masers. The mass of the driving source is estimated to be 30-50 M based on the derived ionizing photon rate, or 30-40 M based on the H30 alpha kinematics. The kinematics of the photoevaporated material is dominated by rotation close to the disk plane, while accelerated to outflowing motion above the disk plane. The mass loss rate of the photoevaporation outflow is estimated to be similar to(2-3.5) x 10(-5) M yr(-1). We also found hints of a possible jet embedded inside the wide-angle ionized outflow with nonthermal emissions. The possible coexistence of a jet and a massive photoevaporation outflow suggests that, in spite of the strong photoionization feedback, accretion is still ongoing.

Interstellar medium

Stellar jets

Star formation

H II regions



Yichen Zhang


Kei E.I. Tanaka

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Osaka University

Viviana Rosero

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Socorro

Jonathan Tan

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Astronomy and Plasmaphysics, Galactic Astrophysics

Joshua Marvil

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Socorro

Yu Cheng

University of Virginia

Mengyao Liu

University of Virginia

Maria T. Beltran

Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory

Guido Garay

University of Chile (UCH)

Astrophysical Journal Letters

2041-8205 (ISSN) 2041-8213 (eISSN)

Vol. 886 1 L4

Subject Categories

Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences

Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology

Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics



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