A study on how to couple thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils: Physical equations, numerical implementation and examples
Journal article, 2017

This paper describes a thermo-hydro-mechanical framework suitable for modelling the behaviour of unsaturated soils. In particular, this paper focuses on bentonite clay subjected to a thermo-hydro-mechanical load, as in the case of nuclear waste engineering barriers. The paper gives a theoretical derivation of the full set of coupled balance equations governing the material behaviour as well as an extended physical interpretation. Finally, a finite element discretisation of the equations and number of simulations verifying their implementation into a custom finite element code is provided. Some aspects of the formulation are also validated against experimental data.

Finite element method

Multiphase flow

THM behaviour


Nuclear waste repositories


Ayman Abed

Aalto University

Wojciech Sołowski

Aalto University

Computers and Geotechnics

0266-352X (ISSN) 1873-7633 (eISSN)

Vol. 92 132- 155

Areas of Advance

Information and Communication Technology


Materials Science

Subject Categories

Civil Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering



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4/1/2021 1