The UV Dose Used for Disinfection of Drinking Water in Sweden Inadequately Inactivates Enteric Virus with Double-Stranded Genomes
Journal article, 2022

Irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV) at 254 nm is effective in inactivating a wide range of human pathogens. In Sweden, a UV dose of 400 J/m2 is often used for the treatment of drinking water. To investigate its effect on virus inactivation, enteric viruses with different genomic organizations were irradiated with three UV doses (400, 600, and 1000 J/m2), after which their viability on cell cultures was examined. Adenovirus type 2 (double-stranded DNA), simian rotavirus 11 (double-stranded RNA), and echovirus 30 (single-stranded RNA) were suspended in tap water and pumped into a laboratory-scale Aquada 1 UV reactor. Echovirus 30 was reduced by 3.6-log10 by a UV dose of 400 J/m2. Simian rotavirus 11 and adenovirus type 2 were more UV resistant with only 1-log10 reduction at 400 J/m2 and needed 600 J/m2 for 2.9-log10 and 3.1-log10 reductions, respectively. There was no significant increase in the reduction of viral viability at higher UV doses, which may indicate the presence of UV-resistant viruses. These results show that higher UV doses than those usually used in Swedish drinking water treatment plants should be considered in combination with other barriers to disinfect the water when there is a risk of fecal contamination of the water.

enteric viruses

echovirus 30

ultraviolet light

rotavirus SA11

human adenovirus 2

drinking water


Fredy Saguti

University of Gothenburg

M. P. Churqui

University of Gothenburg

Inger Kjellberg

Hao Wang

University of Gothenburg

Sahlgrenska University Hospital

Jakob Ottoson

National food agency, Sweden

Catherine Paul

Lund University

Olof Bergstedt

Chalmers, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Water Environment Technology

Helene Norder

University of Gothenburg

Sahlgrenska University Hospital

Kristina Nyström

Sahlgrenska University Hospital

University of Gothenburg

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

1661-7827 (ISSN) 1660-4601 (eISSN)

Vol. 19 14

Subject Categories

Infectious Medicine


Water Treatment





More information

Latest update

8/8/2022 1